A Guide to Buy-to-Let Property Investment in the UK

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The information provided in this article is for informational purposes only and should not be construed as investment advice. Please rely on a mortgage broker for direct advice.

We are not liable for any actions taken based on the content herein and you should always refer to governmental sources and the FCA to make final decisions. We are not FCA regulated so you should not rely on the information in this article to make a decision.

Buy-to-let property investment has become an increasingly popular avenue for individuals and companies seeking to generate rental income and potentially benefit from capital appreciation in the UK real estate market.

In this guide, we’ll delve into what buy-to-let property investment entails, how it works, its benefits, and key considerations for prospective investors.

What is Buy-to-Let Property Investment?

Buy-to-let is a strategic investment approach wherein an individual or company acquires a property with the primary aim of renting it out to tenants rather than residing in it themselves. This investment strategy allows investors to capitalise on rental income streams while potentially realising capital gains over time.

Definition of Buy-to-Let

Buy-to-let is an investment strategy where an individual or company purchases a property with the intention of renting it out to tenants, rather than occupying it themselves. The goal is to generate rental income and potentially benefit from capital appreciation over time.

How Buy-to-Let Works

In a buy-to-let scenario, an investor takes out a mortgage to acquire a property known as a buy to let mortgage. Once the property is acquired, the investor becomes a landlord and is responsible for finding suitable tenants, managing the property, collecting rent, and maintaining the property in good condition. Unless they use a management company

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The rental income generated from the tenants is used to cover the mortgage payments, maintenance costs, and other expenses associated with the property.

If the rental income exceeds the expenses, the investor can pocket the difference as profit. Additionally, if the property’s value appreciates over time, the investor may be able to sell the property at a higher price and realise a capital gain.

Benefits of Buy-to-Let Investment

In order to work out if a buy to let property is the right thing for you, you should consider the benefits of investing in a buy to let in this way.

Potential for high rental yields when compared to stocks and shares

Investing in stocks and shares (equities) has historically outperformed property investments in terms of average annual returns.

The average annual return for equities, as mentioned, is 10.99% (based on the FTSE All Share Total Return from 1986-2017), while the average annual increase in house prices is stated as 6.18% (based on the UK House Price Index from 1986-2017).

Annual return of property UK
Annual return for equities in comparison to house prices

Despite this data, However, this data isn’t the best for two reasons:

  • Property investment can be significantly influenced by location
  • Properties benefit from rental yields as well as an annual increase in value
  • Finding the right people with the right deals can match an investment in stocks
Read how rental trends are changing this year to stay up to date

For example, in England there can be substantial differences in property price growth between regions.

For instance, the example of Reading and Durham shows a stark contrast, with Reading seeing an average annual growth of 21% in property prices from 1995 to 2017, while Durham only experienced a 7.72% annual increase during the same period.

If you buy the best investments in London and are a sophisticated investor, you can potentially outperform equity investments by leveraging strategies such as purchasing properties with high rental yields (typically 8%), creating value through renovations, and using interest-only mortgages for leverage.

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You can keep a small amount of money in the deal

Buy-to -let properties are great investments because most buy-to-let mortgages allow you to put just 20% of the final sale price of the property down and the bank will cover the rest in a mortgage.

This allows you to benefit from the rental income and capital appreciation of a property that you otherwise would not be able to afford through leveraging a mortgage.

Potential for Capital Appreciation

One of the significant benefits of buy-to-let investments in the UK is the potential for capital appreciation, especially in regions like London. Properties in the capital have historically experienced substantial growth in value over time, often outpacing the national average.

This trend can be attributed to various factors, including London’s status as a global financial hub, high demand for housing, and limited supply due to geographic constraints.

Can pass the property on to heirs 

Buy-to-let properties in the UK can be easily passed on to heirs, either through a trust or by placing the property in a limited company. This approach can provide several advantages, such as avoiding probate and minimising inheritance tax liabilities.

Get more information on inheritance in the UK

By placing the property in a trust or a limited company, the ownership structure remains separate from the individual, facilitating a smoother transition of ownership to beneficiaries or family members.

A woman passing her property down to her kids

Tax Advantages

There are also some tax advantages of buying to let property, even though there have been changes to tax relief for residential property. Read on below for all the information you need.

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Mortgage Interest Relief

When investing in a buy-to-let property as an individual, mortgage interest payments are eligible for tax relief. However, the relief has been gradually phased out and replaced by a 20% tax credit system.

Get help with understanding mortgages for buy to let property

This change has made it less advantageous for higher-rate taxpayers to hold buy-to-let properties in their personal names.

Can register a property as a limited company

One way to potentially mitigate the impact of the mortgage interest relief changes is to hold the buy-to-let property through a limited company.

By doing so, the property is considered a business asset, and the mortgage interest payments can be deducted as a legitimate business expense, providing a potential tax advantage. Here is how the tax now works:

Tax Band Individual Tax Rate Limited Company Tax Rate
Basic Rate 20%
Higher Rate 40%
Additional Rate 45%
Corporation Tax 19%

As you can see, if you hold a property in a limited company, rather than your personal name, you will still pay less tax than even the lowest rate of income tax. However, the calculation is more compliacted than this.

Buy to let investment example

Here’s an example of how a buy-to-let property investment might pan out, including a breakdown of expenses, rental income, and tax paid:

Item Amount
Property Purchase Price £250,000
Mortgage (75% LTV at 4% interest) £187,500
Deposit (25%) £62,500
Renovation Costs £10,000
Legal and Other Fees £3,000
Total Initial Investment £75,500
Monthly Rental Income £1,200
Annual Rental Income £14,400
Mortgage Interest (4% on £187,500) £7,500
Maintenance and Management £1,500
Total Annual Expenses £9,000
Annual Rental Profit (before tax) £5,400
Tax (assuming 19% corporation tax rate) £1,026
Annual Rental Profit (after tax) £4,374

In this example, the initial investment for the buy-to-let property is £75,500, including the deposit, renovation costs, and fees.

The property generates an annual rental income of £14,400, with expenses totaling £9,000 (mortgage interest, maintenance, and management). Assuming the property is held through a limited company and subject to the 19% corporation tax rate, the annual rental profit after tax would be £4,374.

Please note that this is a simplified example, and actual figures may vary depending on the specific property, location, and market conditions.

Who should invest in Buy-to-Let Properties?

There are three main types of people who invest in buying property. Those who already own a home or are renting and are looking for their first form of investment, those that are long term investors who maybe have a few buy to let properties already.

Get help on investing in the UK as a foreign investor

Finally, there are institutional investors who acquire large amounts of property at once and may use buy to let deals.

Individuals Seeking Additional Income

Data suggests that a significant portion of landlords (40.1%) view buy-to-let properties as a contribution to their pension, while 35.3% see it as a way to supplement their income.

This indicates that buy-to-let investments can be attractive for individuals looking to generate additional income streams beyond their primary sources of income.

Long-term Investors

Following on from that, 53.9% of landlords consider their role as a long-term investment for their pension, and 27.3% view it as an investment for capital growth.

This implies that buy-to-let properties can be a suitable option for long-term investors seeking to build wealth over an extended period, benefiting from potential rental income and capital appreciation.

A property bought by a long term investor

Institutional investors

While it is unclear what the mindset of instituational investors is, it states that 4.7% of landlords in England are companies, as opposed to 93.7% being private individuals.

This suggests that institutional investors, such as pension funds and real estate investment trusts (REITs), may also be participating in the buy-to-let market, potentially capitalising on the sector’s stability and potential for consistent returns.

Choosing the Right Buy-to-Let Property

According to data from confused.com, private landlords or large companies own the majority of buy-to-let properties in the UK. As of 2022, the total gross advances (new mortgage loans given to borrowers) amounted to £322.5 billion. Of this total, buy-to-let mortgages made up 12.8%, or approximately £41.3 billion.

Size of BTL property market
Data from confused.com

While the buy-to-let market has experienced fluctuations over the years, influenced by government policies and economic conditions, it has consistently maintained a significant presence in the overall mortgage market.

The recent resurgence of buy-to-let investments, reaching £41.3 billion in 2022, suggests a renewed interest and confidence in this sector among investors.

Factors to Consider

When evaluating a buy-to-let investment opportunity, several crucial factors should be considered to ensure a successful and profitable venture.


Location is another factor that helps determine the potential for rental demand and capital appreciation. For example, the difference in property price growth between Reading (21% average annual growth from 1995-2017) and Durham (7.72% average annual growth during the same period) is immense.

This suggests that location plays a critical role in the long-term performance of a buy-to-let investment.

Property Type

Data from confused.com states that the most common types of rental properties are terraced houses (46.1%) and purpose-built flats or maisonettes (38.7%).

Get insight into the type of property there is in the UK

However, the optimal property type may vary depending on the target tenant demographic. For instance, flats or apartments may appeal more to young professionals or students, while houses may be preferred by families.

Rental Demand

This data highlights the importance of understanding rental demand in the area. It shows that the most significant portion of tenants are couples with no children (48.1%) and single occupants (46.6%), followed by couples with children (41.9%).

Assessing the local demographics and employment opportunities can provide insights into the potential demand for rental properties in the area.

Understanding Rental Yields and Capital Appreciation

More data from confused.com you can find here emphasises the importance of rental yields and capital appreciation in evaluating buy-to-let investments. Rental yields, which represent the ratio of the rental income to the property’s purchase price, can vary significantly across different regions.

There are also examples of areas with high rent-to-house price ratios, such as Blackpool (1:237), Burnley (1:243), and Pendle (1:253), suggesting potential for attractive rental yields.

a house in burnley

Additionally, capital appreciation, or the increase in property value over time, is another crucial consideration. There is the potential for substantial capital appreciation in certain areas, such as London, where properties have historically experienced higher growth rates compared to the rest of the UK.

Researching the Local Property Market

To make an informed decision when investing in a buy-to-let property, it is essential to thoroughly research the local property market.

This involves analysing factors such as average property prices, rental rates, tenant demographics, and local economic conditions. This can give you insights on rental market dynamics, including the distribution of rental property types, tenant profiles, and rental rates.

Additionally, data highlights the importance of considering market trends and potential concerns that landlords may face, such as forthcoming legislative changes (52.2%), forthcoming tax changes (49.5%), and financial concerns (46.9%).

By carefully researching and understanding the local market conditions, investors can make more informed decisions and mitigate potential risks.

Financing a Buy-to-Let Property

The below information walks you through how to secure a buy to let mortgage to finance a property.

Buy-to-Let Mortgage requirements

Securing financing is a critical aspect of investing in a buy-to-let property. One of the most common options is a buy-to-let mortgage, specifically designed for those looking to purchase a property for rental purposes.


Lenders typically have specific requirements for buy-to-let mortgages, which may include a minimum rental income threshold, a higher deposit, and stricter affordability calculations. 57% of landlords in England have a buy-to-let mortgage, suggesting that this is a widely used financing option.

Percentage of Landlords with a Buy-To-Let mortgage
Data from confused.com

Interest Rates and Fees

Interest rates and fees for buy-to-let mortgages can vary significantly among lenders. It is crucial to shop around and compare offers to find the most favourable terms. Factors such as the loan-to-value ratio, rental income, and creditworthiness can influence the interest rates and fees charged.

Deposit Requirements and Affordability Calculations

Most buy-to-let mortgages require a substantial deposit, typically around 25% or more of the property’s value. The average buy-to-let mortgage has a loan-to-value (LTV) ratio limit of at least 75%, meaning a minimum 25% deposit is required.

Lenders will also perform affordability calculations to ensure that the rental income can comfortably cover the mortgage payments and other associated costs.

Alternative Financing Options

While buy-to-let mortgages are a common financing method, investors may also explore alternative options depending on their circumstances and preferences.

Cash Buyers

For those with sufficient funds, buying a property outright with cash can eliminate the need for a mortgage and the associated interest charges. However, it is essential to carefully evaluate the opportunity cost of tying up a substantial amount of capital in a single investment.

cash buyers in the uk


Existing homeowners may consider remortgaging their current property to release equity and fund the purchase of a buy-to-let investment. This option can provide access to additional funds without the need for a large upfront deposit, but it also increases the overall debt burden and risk exposure.

When exploring financing options for a buy-to-let property, it is crucial to consider factors such as affordability, risk tolerance, and long-term investment goals. Consulting with financial advisors and mortgage professionals can help investors make informed decisions and navigate the complexities of buy-to-let financing.

Legal and Regulatory Considerations

When investing in a buy-to-let property, it is essential to be aware of the legal and regulatory requirements that govern this type of investment. Failure to comply with these regulations can result in significant fines, legal disputes, and potential damage to the property or harm to tenants.

Buy-to-Let Licensing and Regulations

Depending on the location and type of property, landlords may need to obtain specific licences or comply with certain regulations.

HMO Regulations

If the property is classified as a House of Multiple Occupation (HMO), which typically refers to a property rented to three or more unrelated tenants who share common facilities, additional regulations may apply.

Get insight into HMO licencing

These can include obtaining an HMO licence, adhering to fire safety standards, and ensuring adequate amenities for tenants.

Landlord Registration

Some local authorities require landlords to register with a licensing scheme, particularly in areas with a high concentration of rental properties. This registration process often involves providing detailed information about the property and the landlord, as well as paying associated fees.

Landlord Responsibilities and Tenant Rights

Landlords have a legal obligation to ensure the safety and well-being of their tenants. This includes maintaining the property in a habitable condition, addressing any repair issues promptly, and providing appropriate safety measures such as smoke detectors and carbon monoxide alarms.

98.8% of landlords have a smoke alarm on each floor, and 91.4% conduct electrical installation checks by a qualified tester, demonstrating a high level of compliance with legal requirements.

smoke alarm for uk property

Landlords must also respect tenant rights, such as providing proper notice before entering the property, adhering to fair rent increases, and following the correct procedures for evictions or terminating tenancies.

Property Management and Maintenance

Effective property management and maintenance are crucial aspects of being a responsible landlord. This includes regular property inspections, prompt repairs, and ensuring compliance with health and safety regulations.

Landlords commonly cite property damage or lack of care (38.5%) as reasons for ending tenancies, highlighting the importance of proactive maintenance.

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Landlords may choose to manage the property themselves or hire a professional property management company, which can handle tasks such as tenant screening, rent collection, and maintenance coordination. However, it is important to note that landlords cannot fully delegate their legal responsibilities, even when using a management company.

The information provided in this article is for informational purposes only and should not be construed as investment advice. Please rely on a mortgage broker for direct advice.

We are not liable for any actions taken based on the content herein and you should always refer to governmental sources and the FCA to make final decisions. We are not FCA regulated so you should not rely on the information in this article to make a decision.

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